Author: Sonia Blachier



The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2023 provides a wide range of statistics and indicators relevant to the analysis of international trade, economy, investment, maritime transport, and...

Economic trends

Real GDP growth was 3.1% in 2022, after 5.9% in 2021, and is nowcast to slow down to 2.2% in 2023.


The world population surpassed 8 billion in 2022, despite a slowdown of population growth, accentuated by the pandemic.


Classification of economies UNCTAD’s classification of economies into developing and developed is intended for statistical convenience and does not express judgement about the stage reached by...

Calculation methods

Annual average growth rate The annual average growth rate over multiple years is calculated in this handbook as least squares growth rate or as exponential growth...

Abbreviations, symbols

Abbreviations Symbols 0 Zero means that the amount is nil or negligible. _ The symbol underscore indicates that the item is not applicable. .. Two dots...